The Twa are a forest-dwelling pygmy people descended from Rwanda's earliest inhabitants.
Scholars disagree on the origins of and differences between the Hutu and Tutsi; some believe differences are derived from former social castes within a single people, while others believe the Hutu and Tutsi arrived in the country separately, and from different locations.
The Kingdom of Rwanda dominated from the mid-eighteenth century, with the Tutsi kings conquering others militarily, centralising power and later enacting anti-Hutu policies.
Germany colonised Rwanda in 1884 as part of German East Africa, followed by Belgium, which invaded in 1916 during World War I.
Rwanda is one of only two countries with a female majority in the national parliament.Rwanda is in the African Great Lakes region and is highly elevated; its geography is dominated by mountains in the west and savanna to the east, with numerous lakes throughout the country.The climate is temperate to subtropical, with two rainy seasons and two dry seasons each year.Both European nations ruled through the kings and perpetuated a pro-Tutsi policy. They massacred numerous Tutsi and ultimately established an independent, Hutu-dominated state in 1962.Following a military coup, President Juvénal Habyarimana established a one-party totalitarian dictatorship in Rwanda and ruled for the next 21 years.